NEET Syllabus 2021

NEET Syllabus (NEET Syllabus)

NEET Syllabus
NEET Syllabus


UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement 

NEET Syllabus
• Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology, and society.

• Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and
derived units. Length, mass, and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring
instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.

• Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis, and its applications.

UNIT II: Kinematics (NEET Syllabus)

• Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed, and velocity. Uniform
and non-uniform motion, average speed, and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated
motion, velocity-time, and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical

• Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector
quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation,
equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of
vectors. Relative velocity.

• Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in plane-rectangular components.
• Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform
acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.

UNIT III: Laws of Motion

 Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second
law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and
its applications.


• Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction,

• Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

UNIT IV: Work, Energy, and Power

• Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.

• Notion of potential energy, the potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of
mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); nonconservative forces; motion in a vertical
circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

• Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation, and center of mass motion.
Centre of mass of a rigid body; center of mass of the uniform rod.

• Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some

• Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation, and equation of rotational motion, comparison of
linear and rotational motions; a moment of inertia, the radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple
geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and
their applications.

UNIT VI: Gravitation

• Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and
its variation with altitude and depth.

• Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite.
Geostationary satellites.

UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter

• Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear,
modulus of rigidity, Poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.

• Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline, and turbulent flow. Critical
velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem, and its applications.

• Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface
tension ideas to drops, bubbles, and capillary rise.

• Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous
expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state – latent heat.

• Heat transfer- conduction and thermal conductivity, convection, and radiation. Qualitative ideas of
Black Body Radiation, Wein’s displacement law, and Green House effect.
• Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.

UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics

• Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work, and
internal energy. The first law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.

• Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and

UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory

• Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.
• Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, the concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, the law of equipartition of energy (statement only), and application to specific heat
capacities of gases; the concept of mean free path.

UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves

• Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple
harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force
constant; energy in SHM –Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression
for its time period; free, forced, and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.

• Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for
a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, a reflection of waves, standing waves in
strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode, and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect.


UNIT I: Electrostatics

• Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces
between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

• Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due
to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.

• Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long
straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet, and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field
inside and outside)

• Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole, and system
of charges: equipotential surfaces, the electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and
of electric diploes in an electrostatic field.

• Conductors and insulators, free charges, and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and
electric polarization, capacitors, and capacitance, a combination of capacitors in series and in parallel,
the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates,
energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.

UNIT II: Current Electricity

• Electric current, the flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and nonlinear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity, and conductivity.

• Carbon resistors, color code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors;
temperature dependence of resistance.

• Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and
in parallel.

• Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, meter bridge.
• Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of
two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

UNIT III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

• Concept of the magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot-Savart law and its application to current
carrying circular loop.

• Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids.
Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.

• Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. The force between two parallel
current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a
magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and

• Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. The magnetic dipole moment of a
revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and
perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar
magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic
• Para-, dia-and ferromagnetic substances, with examples.
• Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

UNIT IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

• Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self
and mutual inductance.

• Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance;
LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits,
wattles current.
• AC generator and transformer.

UNIT V: Electromagnetic Waves

• Need for displacement current.
• Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of
electromagnetic waves.

• Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma
rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

UNIT VI: Optics

• Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and
its applications optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker’s
formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens
and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.

• Scattering of light- blue color of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
• Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation, and accommodation, correction of eye defects
(myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses.

• Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
• Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane
surface using wavefronts.

• Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.
• Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and
sustained interference of light.

• Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.
• Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarized light;
Brewster’s law uses of plane-polarized light and Polaroids.

UNIT VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

• Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation- particle
nature of light.
• Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment
(experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

UNIT VIII: Atoms and Nuclei

• Alpha- particle scattering experiments; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels,
hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.

• Radioactivity- alpha, beta, and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay law. Mass-energy
relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear
fission, and fusion.

UNIT IX: Electronic Devices

• Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators, and semiconductors;
semiconductor diode- I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V
characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator.
Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier
(common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).
Transistor as a switch.


UNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

• General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.
• Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: the concept of elements, atoms, and molecules.

• Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and
empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry, and calculations based on

UNIT II: Structure of Atom

• Atomic number, isotopes, and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and
light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the concept of orbital, quantum
numbers, shapes of s,p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli
exclusion principles and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half-filled and
completely filled orbitals.

UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

• Modern periodic law and long form of the periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence.

UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

• Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, the polar character of
a covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, the geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, the concept of hybridization involving s, p, and d orbitals, and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.

UNIT V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

• Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points,
the role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s
law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of the gas equation. Avogadro
number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from
ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.

• Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity, and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical

UNIT VI: Thermodynamics

• First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat,
measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation,
combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution, and dilution.

• Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for
spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.
• Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.

UNIT VII: Equilibrium

• Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, the law of chemical
equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium- Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic
equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization,
ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, the concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea).,
buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative

UNIT VIII: Redox Reactions

• Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing
redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.

UNIT IX: Hydrogen

• Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties, and uses of hydrogen; hydridesionic, covalent and
interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation,
reactions use, and structure;

UNIT X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)

• Group I and group 2 elements:
• General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first
element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as
ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water,
hydrogen and halogens; uses.

• Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:
• Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological
importance of sodium and potassium.
• Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.

UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elements

• General Introduction to p-Block Elements.
• Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of
properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of the first element of
the group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses,
reactions with acids and alkalies.

• General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of
properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of the first element.
Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds:

• Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates, and zeolites,
their uses.

UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques

• General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and
IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.

• Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance, and

• Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions;
electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbons

• Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical
reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion, and pyrolysis.

• Alkanes-Nomenclature, the structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical
properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water,
hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of
electrophilic addition.

• Alkynes-Nomenclature, the structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of
preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen,
halogens, hydrogen halides and water.

• Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity;
chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution-Nitration sulphonation, halogenation,
Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of the functional group in mono-substituted
benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.

UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistry

• Environmental pollution: Air, water, and soil pollution, chemical reactions in the atmosphere, smogs,
major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of the ozone layer,
greenhouse effect and global warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an
an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.


UNIT I: Solid State

• Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent, and metallic
solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three
dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids,
number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties,
Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors, and insulators.

UNIT II: Solutions

• Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, the solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- the relative lowering of vapor pressure, Raoult’s law,
elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of
molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor.

UNIT III: Electrochemistry

• Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of
conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis, and Laws of electrolysis (elementary
idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard
electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.

UNIT IV: Chemical Kinetics

• Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration,
temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant,
integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first-order reactions); concept of collision
theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenius equation.

UNIT V: Surface Chemistry

• Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids,
catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state:
the distinction between true solutions, colloids, and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic multimolecular
and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement,
electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.

UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

• Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and
refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc, and iron.

UNIT VII: p- Block Elements

• Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states,
trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid,
oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous:
preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5), and oxoacids (elementary idea only).

• Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence,
trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification
of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation,
properties, and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties
and uses oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).

• Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence,
trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses
of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
• Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and
chemical properties use.

UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elements

• General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in
properties of the first-row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states,
ionic radii, color, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation.
Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.

• Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid
contraction and its consequences.
• Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states, and comparison with lanthanoids.

UNIT IX: Coordination Compounds

• Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, color, magnetic properties
and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and
stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT, CFT; the importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative
analysis, biological systems).

UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

• Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of
substitution reactions. Optical rotation.

• Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for
monosubstituted compounds only).

• Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane,
iodoform, freons, DDT.

UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers

• Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary
alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration,
uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.

• Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of
phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
• Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses.

UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids

• Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical
and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, the reactivity of alpha hydrogen in
aldehydes; uses.

• Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties; uses.

UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

• Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties, use the identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.

• Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.
• Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions, and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

UNIT XIV: Biomolecules

• Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D.L.
configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose,
glycogen): importance.

• Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure,
secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation
of proteins; enzymes.

• Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).
• Vitamins- Classification and function.
• Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

UNIT XV: Polymers

• Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation),
copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber,
Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life

• Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.

• Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.

• Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.


UNIT I: Diversity in Living World

• What is living?; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.

• Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into
major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.

• Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes,
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two
examples of each category); Angiosperms classification up to class, characteristic features and

• Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes
level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).

UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

• Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants:
Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and racemose, flower, fruit, and seed (To be dealt with along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).

• Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy, and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory,
respiratory, nervous, and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)

UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function

• Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function;
Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria,
ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and
function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

• Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates,
lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.

• B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis, and their significance.

UNIT IV: Plant Physiology

• Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases, and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion,
facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis,
plasmolysis; Long-distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull,
root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation
of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases
(brief mention).

• Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients, and their role; Deficiency symptoms;
Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen
metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

• Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take
place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases
of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non-cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis;
Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.

• Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- Number of ATP molecules generated;
Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.

• Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate;
Conditions of growth; Differentiation, differentiation, and redifferentiation; Sequence of
developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA;
Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.

UNIT V: Human Physiology

• Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and
gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins,
carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and
digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.

• Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.

• Body fluids and circulation: Composition of the blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.

• Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism,
uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and function; Urine formation, Osmoregulation;
Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH, and Diabetes
insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, renal calculi, Nephritis;
Dialysis and artificial kidney.

• Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, flagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the
relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia
gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.

• Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans central nervous
the system, peripheral nervous system, and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.

• Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine systemHypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and
hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter,
exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).
(Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt with in brief.)


UNIT I: Reproduction

• Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of
species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission,
sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

• Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female
gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies, and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil
interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo,
Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony;
Significance of seed and fruit formation.

• Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and
ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo
development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary
idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

• Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases
(STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP);
Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution

• Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism- Incomplete dominance,
Co-dominance, Multiple alleles, and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of
polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex
determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; S-x-linked inheritanceHaemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

• Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of
DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code,
translation; Gene expression and regulation- Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA

• Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology, and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare

• Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis.
Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines;
Cancer, HIV, and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.

• Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single-cell protein, Biofortification;
Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

• Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment,
energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications

• Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
• Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene
therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.

UNIT V: Ecology and environment

• Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population
interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, the birth rate
and death rate, age distribution.

• Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.

• Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of
Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms,
extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks, and sanctuaries.

• Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and
global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing
environmental issues. NEET Syllabus.

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